Home Ministry of Corporate Affairs Mental Property Rights in India: Legal guidelines and Procedures

Mental Property Rights in India: Legal guidelines and Procedures

Mental Property Rights in India: Legal guidelines and Procedures

The preliminary step for any firm trying to broaden into India is to guard and handle its mental property rights (IPR). This should be completed as a part of a method to extend the worth of the corporate’s property.

Having a novel mental property can provide firms an edge over their rivals and may grow to be an important part of its advertising and marketing technique. Companies also can generate income by promoting or granting licenses on mental property.

In India, there are various kinds of mental property, that are protected underneath completely different legal guidelines. So as to register mental property, one should navigate advanced

authorized necessities and compliances. Our consultants at Dezan Shira and Associates can information your organization in devising its IPR technique. For help, contact our skilled advisors at india@dezshira.com.

On this article, we offer a quick overview of the IPR system in India and enumerate its part legal guidelines and fundamental procedures for registration.

IP traits in India

IP Submitting Developments in India

IPR Class

FY 2018

FY 2019

FY 2020

FY 2021

FY 2022













Commerce mark






Geographical Indication












Semiconductor Built-in Structure Designs (SCILD)












Developments of IPRs Granted and Disposed

      IPR Class

FY 2018

FY 2019

FY 2020

FY 2021

FY 2022



























Commerce Marks













Geographical Indications







Semiconductor Built-in Structure Design





















  • Regulation: Patents Act, 1970; Patents (Modification) Act, 2005; Patents Guidelines, 2003; Patent (Modification) Guidelines, 2020
  • Related Ministry: Workplace of the Controller Normal of Patents, Designs and Commerce Marks (Indian Patent Workplace), Division for Promotion of Trade and Inside Commerce (DPIIT), Ministry of Commerce and business

A patent is a authorized proper that confers monopoly to an individual for his or her invention.

Based on the Patents Act, 1970, an ‘invention’ should fulfill three standards:

  • It should be a brand new product or a course of that didn’t beforehand exist
  • It should provide a brand new technical enchancment as easy adjustments to a beforehand identified method can’t be patented
  • The proposed invention should be helpful

As soon as a product or course of is patented, it can’t be commercially produced, distributed, used, or bought with out the consent of the patent proprietor. 

India grants patent rights on a first-to-apply foundation. The appliance for a patent will be made by both:

  • The inventor
  • The assignee
  • The authorized consultant of the inventor

Patent utility might also be made collectively by two or extra companies as assignees. A international nationwide resident also can apply and procure a patent in India.

Patent registration process

  • Patentability search: The patentability search is step one within the patent registration course of. The individuality, ingenuity, industrial applicability, and enablement of the invention are evaluated via a patentable search.
  • Drafting the patent utility: If an invention is discovered to be patentable following a search, the applicant should write a patent utility that particulars the invention. Step one after drafting a patent utility is to file the patent utility.
  • Submitting a patent utility: The following step is submitting the patent utility. Purposes should embody the invention’s specs in addition to another mandatory or pertinent data. To acquire a patent registration for his or her innovation, an applicant might submit each a provisional and a full utility.
  • Publication of utility: The Indian patent Workplace (IPO) publishes the applying within the official patent journal, making it accessible within the public area after 18 months from the date of submitting or precedence. An early publication request is feasible.
  • Examination of utility: After publication, the patent workplace examines the applying. In contrast to publication, examination doesn’t happen mechanically upon submitting.
  • Objection by the Examiner: The Examiner scrutinizes the applying and points a report stating all objections associated to the applying, primarily based on the knowledge talked about within the utility.
  • Workplace motion response: The applicant should reply to the Examiner’s objections to obtain a patent grant. They’ve a most of six months from the primary examination report’s issuing date to reply. The length will be prolonged by three months with a request to the IPO.
  • Grant of patent registration: As soon as the applying addresses all of the objections raised by the Examiner, the patent workplace grants the patent registration and publishes it within the patent gazette.

Important elements of full specification underneath patent registration

  • Title and preamble
  • Prior artwork
  • Loopholes within the prior artwork
  • Resolution to drawbacks
  • Abstract of the invention
  • Assertion of invention
  • Particulars of invention
  • Particulars concerning drawings
  • Examples
  • Claims

Paperwork required for patent registration in India

For Patent registration, the below-mentioned varieties and paperwork are required:

Type 1: Software for grant of patent

  • Id proof of the inventor and assignee
  • Handle proof of the inventor and assignee
  • Contact particulars
  • Info equivalent to prior patent purposes regarding the present invention, which the applicant or any licensed entity has filed
  • Some declarations, amongst different data

Type 2: Provisional/full specification


Type 2 is used to furnish the applicant’s patent specification. It could be provisional or an entire patent specification, relying on the kind of patent utility being filed.


Type 3: Assertion and endeavor underneath Part 8


  • Particulars of assignments
  • Particulars of international submitting


Type 5: Declaration as to inventorship


This utility is used to declare the inventor(s) of the present patent utility.


Technical data


  • Background of the invention
  • Disclosure of want of invention
  • Abstract of the invention
  • Description of how the invention works


Type 18

Request for Examination

Type 19 

Request for Early Publication

Type 26

Disclosure of Energy of Authority (If assigned to the Patent Agent)


Type 9

Request for Publication. That is non-compulsory if the categorical publication is required.


  • Regulation: Trademark Act, 1999; The Commerce Marks (Modification) Act, 2010; Commerce Marks Guidelines, 2003; Commerce Marks Guidelines, 2017
  • Related Ministry: DPIIT, Ministry of Commerce and Trade

For a enterprise, its trademark is amongst its Most worthy property. The corporate’s trademark protects its distinctive signal or indicator. This can be an emblem, brand, phrase, phrase, identify, sound, design or a picture that symbolizes the model worth or goodwill related to the enterprise or its product and providers.

In India, logos are registered underneath the federal registration system with the assist of 5 regional places of work: Ahmedabad, Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata, and Mumbai. The Commerce Mark Act of 1999 supplies trademark guidelines for the registration, regulation, and safety of logos in India. DIPP just lately revamped previous trademark guidelines for registering logos in India.

Trademark registration process

  • Conduct the trademark search
  • Submitting trademark utility: The at the beginning step is to file the prescribed utility on the Trademark Registry India. The applicant also can file the applying on-line. After submitting the mentioned utility, an acknowledgement receipt is generated by the official portal for future reference.
  • Verification of utility and paperwork: After submitting an utility with India’s Trademark Registry, the scrutiny course of begins and is performed by a delegated official generally known as an Examiner. The verification course of can take round 12-18 months. After inspection, the Examiner might settle for the mark unconditionally, conditionally, or object to it.
  • If the mark is accepted unconditionally, it will likely be printed within the Trademark Journal.
  • If it’s not accepted unconditionally, the Examiner will stipulate circumstances to be met or objections that should be addressed. The applicant can be given one month to fulfill the circumstances or reply to the objections. If the Examiner finds the applicant’s response passable, the trademark in query can be printed within the Trademark Journal.
  • If the response shouldn’t be accepted, the applicant could have the prospect to signify their case in a listening to. Upon receiving a passable response from the applicant, the Examiner might render their approval and publish the involved mark within the Trademark Journal.
  • Publication of trademark in trademark journal: The publication of the mark within the trademark journal allows the authority to ask objections from third events if no objections are raised inside the specified time-frame. The authority can present approval for the following step. Quite the opposite, if the mark someway attracts some objections, the authority would conduct a good listening to.
  • Grant of trademark registration by registrar: The applicant is subsequently offered with a registration certificates by the registrar, which has a ten-year validity interval. The trademark workplace seal should be included by the registrar on the certificates.

The entire course of takes about 15 to 18 months. The trademark is legitimate for 10 years ranging from the date of issuance of the certificates. It may be renewed for one more 10 years on the fee of the prescribed charges.

Paperwork required for trademark registration in India

  • Applicant’s identification proof
  • PAN
  • Aadhar card
  • Passport
  • Certificates of Incorporation (COI), in case of firms registered underneath Firm Act, 2013
  • Brand whether it is relevant and accessible
  • Handle proof


  • Regulation: Copyrights Act 1957; The Copyright (Modification) Act, 2012; Copyright (Modification) Guidelines, 2021

India has a really sturdy and complete copyright legislation primarily based on the Indian Copyright Act of 1957. The copyright legislation is totally appropriate with worldwide norms just like the Berne Conference, Commerce Associated Facets of Mental Property Rights (TRIPS) Settlement, and the World Mental Property Group (WIPO) Copyright Treaty (WCT).

A copyright grants the unique proper to the creator to manage replica or adaptation of their work for a sure time frame. In contrast to logos and patents, a copyright protects the distinctive expression of concepts and never the concept itself. Additional, copyright registration can’t be obtained for titles or names, quick phrase combos, slogans, quick phrases – as these can solely be trademarked.

Varieties of works eligible for copyright registration

  • Creative works
  • Producers of cinematograph movies
  • Music voice recordings
  • Literary works
  • Musical works, together with any accompanying phrases
  • Dramatic works, together with any accompanying music
  • Pantomimes (drama) and choreographic works
  • Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works
  • Movement photos and different audio-visual works
  • Sound recordings

Registration process for submitting the copyright registration

  • Create a person ID and password on the official website, copyright.gov.in.
  • File utility type: An applicant can apply both manually within the copyright workplace or via an e-filing facility accessible on the official web site. Right here, the applicant will be the writer of the work, the proprietor of an unique proper to the work, or a licensed agent.
  • Examination of utility: After the applying is filed, the following step is the examination of the copyright utility. A minimal ready interval of 30 days is supplied for the copyright Examiner to evaluate the applying as soon as the diary quantity is issued. The copyright registration course of is then divided into two segments:
    • Objections raised: If an objection is raised by somebody towards the applicant, a letter is distributed to each events, and they’re referred to as for a listening to by the registrar. If the objection is rejected upon listening to, the applicant can ask for scrutiny, and the discrepancy process is adopted.
    • No objections raised: If no objections are raised, the Examiner opinions and scrutinizes the applying for any disparities. If no discrepancies come up and all mandatory paperwork are supplied, the applicant can proceed to the following step. Nonetheless, if inconsistencies are discovered, a letter of discrepancy is distributed to the applicant. The applicant should reply, and a listening to is performed by the registrar. As soon as the distinction is resolved, the applicant can transfer on to the following step. If the distinction can’t be resolved, the applying is rejected, and a rejection letter is distributed to the applicant.
  • Issuance of registration certificates: The certificates of copyright registration is issued on the remaining stage. The Registrar might ask for extra particulars or paperwork at this level. The data concerning the copyright utility can be recorded within the register of copyrights, and a certificates of registration can be granted, if the Registrar is totally glad with the applying made by the applicant.

Paperwork required for copyright registration in India

Fundamental paperwork

  • Particulars of the applicant (ID and Handle proof of the applicant together with the nationality).
  • Identify, handle, and nationality of the writer of the work.
  • Disclosure of the applicant’s curiosity within the copyright – whether or not they’re the writer of the work or the consultant of the writer.
  • Copies of the unique work.
  • In case for enterprise goal – incorporation certificates is required.
  • Particulars of the character of the work.
  • Class, title and outline of the work.
  • Language of the work.
  • Date of publication – Publication in inside magazines or a analysis paper submitted to a professor doesn’t rely as publication.

Creative work

  • Two copies of the work.
  • Demand draft of INR (as relevant) in accordance with creative work.
  • Writer’s No Objection Certificates (NOC) if the applicant is completely different from the writer.
  • Writer’s NOC if the work printed and writer is completely different from the applicant.
  • Search certificates from Commerce Mark Workplace in TM-60 if the work is getting used on items or gadgets able to getting used on the products.
  • NOC from the person whose {photograph} seems on the work.
  • When submitting an utility by an lawyer, an unique copy of a “Energy of Lawyer” signed by the applicant and likewise accepted by the lawyer.

Cinematograph movie

  • Two copies of the work.
  • Demand draft of INR (as relevant) in accordance with cinematographic work.
  • NOC from completely different copyright holders or copy of the settlement (deed of project).
  • NOC from the writer if the work printed and writer is completely different from the applicant.
  • When submitting an utility via an lawyer, an unique copy of a “Energy of Lawyer” signed by the applicant & additionally accepted by the lawyer.


  • Two copies of the work (graphical notes).
  • Demand draft of INR (as relevant) in accordance with work.
  • NOC from the writer if the work printed and writer is completely different from the applicant.
  • Writer’s NOC if the applicant is apart from the writer.
  • When submitting an utility by an lawyer, an unique copy of a “Energy of Lawyer” duly signed by the applicant & additionally accepted by the lawyer.

Software program

  • Two copies of the work (graphical notes).
  • Demand draft of INR (as relevant) in accordance with work.
  • NOC from the writer if the work printed and writer is completely different from the applicant.
  • Writer’s NOC if the applicant is apart from the writer.
  • When submitting an utility via an lawyer, an unique copy of a “Energy of Lawyer” signed by the applicant & additionally accepted by the lawyer.
  • The supply code and the thing code of the work for due verification.

Industrial designs

  • Regulation: Designs Act, 2000; Designs Guidelines, 2001; The Designs (Modification), Guidelines, 2021
  • Related Ministry: DPIIT, Ministry of Commerce and business

A design refers back to the distinctive visible traits of an article, equivalent to its form, determine, blueprints, decorations, or association of traces and colours, or a mix of those, created via any manufacturing technique, whether or not guide, mechanical, automated, chemical, or a mix thereof, in both two-dimensional or three-dimensional type. The aim of acquiring design registration underneath the Designs Act is to guard a novel or modern design that’s meant to be utilized to a selected article in the course of the manufacturing course of utilizing an industrial course of or technique.

Industrial design registration process

The economic design registration process entails the next steps:

  • Examination: The Controller of Designs refers the applying to an Examiner of Designs who checks if the applying and paperwork meet formal necessities and if the design is registrable underneath the Designs Act and Guidelines.
  • Formality test: The Examiner ensures that the applying is within the prescribed format, charge is paid, applicant’s particulars are supplied, and declaration of proprietorship is given. The illustration sheet is checked to make sure it complies with Rule 14, and an influence of authority is filed if relevant.
  • Substantive examination: The Examiner checks if the design is new, unique, and never prejudicial to public order, morality, or safety of India.
  • Consideration of Examiner’s report: If the design is eligible for registration, the Controller registers it and points a certificates. If objections come up, the applicant is knowledgeable, and a press release of objections is communicated. The applicant should adjust to the objections or apply for a listening to inside three months. If the applicant fails to conform, the applying is deemed withdrawn.
  • Design registration and publication: Registered designs are printed within the Patent Workplace Journal inside one month of registration, and the registration quantity is similar as the applying quantity.
  • Register of Designs: All registered designs are entered within the Register of Designs maintained on the Patent Workplace in Kolkata, which is on the market for public inspection. An e-register can be accessible on the IPO official portal.

As soon as the applying is accepted, it’s notified within the patent workplace journal and is legitimate for a interval of 10 years from the date of registration. The interval could also be prolonged by 5 years by submitting an utility for renewal together with the prescribed charge. 

Paperwork required for design registration in India

To file a design utility, sure paperwork and varieties must be ready and submitted as per the Design Guidelines. These embody:

  • Type 1, which must be stuffed out within the prescribed format as talked about in Schedule II of the Designs Guidelines.
  • Representations should be ready in accordance with Guidelines 12, 13, and 14 of the Design Guidelines and submitted in duplicate.
  • If the applying is filed via a patent agent or an advocate, Type 21, the Energy of Authority/Normal Energy of Authority (GPA), must be submitted within the unique. This type can be talked about in Schedule II.
  • If a duplicate of the GPA is filed, it must be endorsed with the design utility quantity with which the unique GPA was filed.
  • Type 24 within the prescribed format must be submitted if the applicant is claiming small entity standing, as talked about in Schedule-II of the Designs Guidelines. If the applicant is an Indian entity, proof of registration underneath the MSME Act, 2006, must also be supplied. Within the case of international entities, an affidavit must be deposed by the applicant or a licensed signatory as per Rule 42 of the Designs Guidelines.
  • The unique Precedence doc must be submitted underneath Rule 15 of the Designs Guidelines.
  • An authenticated English-translated copy of the precedence doc must be submitted if the unique precedence doc is in a language apart from English.
  • If the applicant for the precedence utility within the conference nation is completely different from the Indian applicant, an project within the unique format must be submitted.

Geographical indications (GI)

  • Regulation: The Geographical Indications of Items (Registration and safety) Act, 1999; The Geographical Indications of Items (Registration and Safety) (Modification) Guidelines, 2020
  • Related Ministry: DPIIT, Ministry of Commerce and business

A geographical indication (GI) is a tag used on merchandise primarily based on their geographical uniqueness. The individuality of a product is outlined both by its origin, course of, or availability. GI tags often assist companies improve their marketability.

Necessities for registering GI in India: Important {qualifications} and conditions

  • To be eligible for the registration of a geographical indication in India, sure conditions and {qualifications} should be fulfilled, which embody:
  • The product ought to originate from a particular geographical location.
  • The product ought to have distinctive qualities, traits, or a status which are primarily related to its geographical origin.
  • The product shouldn’t fall underneath any prohibited classes, equivalent to generic names or indications which are towards public order or morality.
  • The applicant should be both an affiliation of individuals, producers, or any group that represents the pursuits of the producers.
  • The applicant ought to have direct involvement within the manufacturing, advertising and marketing, or sale of the product.

GI registration process in India

To register a geographical indication in India, the next steps must be taken:

  • Conduct a search to substantiate that the proposed geographical indication shouldn’t be already registered or pending registration.
  • Put together the applying for registration of the geographical indication within the prescribed type, together with the required paperwork.
  • File the applying with the Geographical Indications Registry, together with the prescribed charge.
  • The Geographical Indications Registry examines the applying to make sure that it meets the eligibility standards and conditions for registration.
  • If the applying is accepted, the geographical indication is printed within the Geographical Indications Journal.
  • Any particular person might oppose the registration of the geographical indication inside three months of its publication within the Geographical Indications Journal.
  • If there is no such thing as a opposition or the opposition is dismissed, the geographical indication is registered, and the registered proprietor has the precise to make use of the registered GI tag on the product.

The registration of a geographical indication is legitimate for a interval of 10 years. It may be renewed for one more 10 years at any time. 

Paperwork required for GI registration in India

The next paperwork are required for the registration of a geographical indication in India:

  • Software for registration within the prescribed type.
  • Assertion of case.
  • Particulars of the product, together with its distinctive options, technique of manufacturing, and the hyperlink between the product and its geographical origin.
  • Proof to ascertain the hyperlink between the product and its geographical origin, equivalent to maps, pictures, and historic information.
  • Authorization letter, if the applying is filed by an agent.
  • Energy of lawyer, if the applying is filed by a authorized consultant.
  • If relevant, an authorized copy of the precedence doc. 

This text was initially printed Could, 2017. It was final up to date March 23, 2023.



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